Note: I manually transcribed the contents of this file from the PDF document available from ERIC. Since the original document was rather unreadable in places, I tried to produce a clean version in HTML/Unicode. For the most part this is a verbatim copy of the document text, with as much formatting preserved as I could do in simple HTML. I've made some corrections for obvious English misspellings along the way. I've probably introduced errors in the Kazakh text; please notify me of any errors you find so that I can correct those too.
  -- hyc, 2008-07-26

ERIC #		ED404842
AUTHOR		Krippes, Karl A.
TITLE		Kazakh (Qazaq-) Grammatical Sketch with Affix List
NOTE		35p.
PUB TYPE	Reports - Descriptive (141)

EDRS PRICE	MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
DESCRIPTORS	*Affixes; Alphabets; Foreign Countries; *Form Classes
		(Languages); *Grammar; *Language Patterns; Non Roman
		Scripts; *Phonology; Spelling; *Uncommonly Taught

		Facts on the grammar of Kazakh, spoken in Kazakhstan,
are presented. They are intended as a guide, not an instructional
text. Information is presented in the form of notes and word lists on
the following topics: orthography (the Cyrillic alphabet, spelling
reform, stylistic and dialectal alternations, common misspellings,
and homographs); phonetics and phonology (vowel system, diphthongs,
consonant system, word stress and vowel length, and phonological
changes); parts of speech (nouns, postpositions, numerals, adverbs,
pronouns, and verbs); conjunctions; derivational morphology
(denominal and deverbal adjectives); and interjections. A brief list
of references and a list of inflectional and derivational affixes are
included. (MSE)

SKETCH with Affix List

By Karl A. Krippes

Hieroglyphic Press, Columbia, Maryland

  1. Preface
  2. Orthography
    1. The Cyrillic Qazaq Alphabet
    2. Spelling Reform and Earlier Dictionaries
    3. Stylistic and Dialectal Alternations
      1. Vowel Alternations
      2. Consonantal Alternations
    4. Common Misspellings
    5. Homographs
  3. Phonetic/Phonology
    1. Vowel System
    2. Diphthongs
    3. Consonant System
    4. Word Stress/Fleeting Vowels
    5. Phonological Changes
      1. Types of Assimilation in Colloquial Speech: Labial Harmony
      2. Dissimilation of Лл in Standard Non-Colloquial Speech
      3. Consonantal Assimilation Changes in Noun/Verb Affixes
        1. Consonantal Voicing and Devoicing in Nouns/Verbs
      4. Homophonous Suffixes
  4. Parts of Speech
    1. Nouns
      1. Inflection of Nouns
    2. Postpositions
    3. Numerals
    4. Adverbs (Үстеу)
    5. Pronouns: personal, indicative, interrogative, reflexive, indefinite, definite, negative
    6. Verbs Етіс
      1. The Citation Form of Verbs
      2. Non-past Personal Endings
      3. Negative Forms of Simple Verbs
      4. Derived Verbs and Verb Derivation: passive, reflexive, collective, causative
      5. Participles Есімше: future, habitual, habitual/agentive, goal-oriented
      6. Deverbal Adverbs (Көсемше): aorist, negative aorist, goal-oriented, temporal, conditional
      7. Immediate Past Tense of Simple Verbs
      8. Compound Verbs
      9. Reduplication: auxiliary verbs (modal/inchoative, aspect/tense/person markers)
      10. Imperative Mood
      11. Optative Mood
      12. Conditional Mood
  5. Conjunctions (жалғаулық шылаулар)
  6. Derivational Morphology
    1. Denominal Adjectives
    2. Deverbal Adjectives
  7. References
  8. List of Inflectional and Derivational Affixes

0. Preface

The prestige of Qazaqstan among nations of the CIS is rapidly being recognized by businesses and agencies of the United States. This publication is made available through the Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC to help Americans have a smoother initiation to the study of Qazaq than they might have by relying on Russian-language materials.

This grammatical sketch is a compilation of facts as presented in Qazaq-language and Russian-language references. It is intended only as a guide. For a more in-depth presentation of grammar with conversation, the student is referred to Learn the Kazakh Language in 70 Steps by Tangat Tangriberdi Kyzy Ayapova, Dunwoody Press (1993). If the student is inspired to write a more complete grammar of Qazaq than the one presented here, I have accomplished something.

Karl A. Krippes, Columbia, Maryland November 8, 1993

I. Orthography

1.1 The Cyrillic Qazaq Alphabet

The Cyrillic Qazaq Alphabet was adopted in 1938 to replace the Arabo-Persian script in use until the revolution. The order given below is the one used in the Қаэак Тілінің Орфографиялық Сөэлік [Qazaq Orthographic Dictionary] (1988) and dictionaries prepared and published after 1963 (see below).

Аа Әә Бб Вв Гг Ғғ Дд Ее Ёё Жж Зз Ии Йй Кк Ққ
Лл Мм Нн Ңң Оо Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Ұұ Үү Фф Һһ Хх Цц Чч Шш
Щщ ъ Ыы Іі ь Ээ Юю Яя

The letters in bold occur in loan-words from English and Russian. Words containing these letters are distinctively foreign because historically words beginning in Ёё [yo], Юю [yu], Яя [ya] became [jo], [ju], [ja], and Чч changed to [sh]. Щщ occurs at the beginning of Russian loan-words. But in the few native Qazaq words where it occurs, Щ is pronounced like a geminate or long шш, e.g. ащы 'sour', тұщы 'fresh'.

Aside from a few Russian adjectives borrowed into Qazaq, the vowel combination ий does not occur. However, ый and иы do occur in a small number of cases, e.g. сый 'gift', сыйлау 'to make a gift', сиыр 'cow'.

Unlike Cyrillic Russian, Ее is pronounced [e] rather than [ye]. Уу is more typically pronounced [w] rather than [u] and Ии as [iy]. The alternation of Ғғ with a vowel in a few words, e.g. Ғапу/апу 'apology', ғимарат/имарат 'edifice' is due to the fact that these words of Perso-Arabic origin were written with the Arabic letter ayin in the pre-revolutionary period.

The pronunciations of Вв and Фф can be patterned either according to Russian as [v] and [f] or to native Qazaq as [w] and [p]. Persian loan-words which originally contained [v] and [f] are pronounced in Qazaq as [w] and [p], e.g. уақыт 'time', пайда 'use, benefit'.

The letter һ does not occur in initial or final position, and it occurs only rarely in between vowels, e.g. шаһар 'city', қаһар 'wrath'.

Doubled vowels уу ұу and үу are not uncommon in the citation form of Qazaq verbs because the second vowel У is attached to a verb root ending in the same vowel, e.g. суу 'to cool down'.

1.2 Spelling Reform and Earlier Dictionaries

According to the editor of the Qazaq Orthographic Dictionary (Syzdykova, 1988:3), the spelling rules for Cyrillic were systematized by 1957 (i.e. when Shnitnikov's work was well underway in the U.S.), but the first Qazaq Orthographic Dictionary was published in 1963, two years after Shnitnikov's death and nine years after the publication of the first edition of Makhmudov and Musabaev's Qazaq-Russian Dictionary. Therefore, the learner will have some difficulty looking up words in a dictionary which predates the orthographic reform.

Two major changes in the formulation of Qazaq Cyrillic orthography centered around the letters ы and і (Syzdykova, 1988:1), which are a major problem for students wanting to use earlier bilingual dictionaries, in addition to the rearrangement of the ordering of the letters Ққ, Ғғ and Ұұ (placed last in older dictionaries).

1.3 Stylistic and Dialectal Alternations

Because there is no normative vocabulary of Qazaq, the student should be aware of common alternations in vowels and consonants.

1.3.1 Vowel Alternations

The vowels ы and а alternate in certain words, e.g. ыржыңлау/ыржаңлау 'to wink'.

1.3.2 Consonantal Alternations

The standard ң alternates with a less standard ңк/ңқ, e.g. ыңылдау/ыңқылдау 'to moan, groan', рең/реңк 'color'. The consonants қ and х alternate, though х is typically a colloquial variant of қ, e.g. қана/хана 'house' (in compound words). Note the standard variation between қат 'letter' and қолхат 'voucher', хат-хабар 'news'.

1.4 Common Misspellings

Printed texts can present problems for the non-native reader due to poor print type or simple typographical errors. The commonest errors (indicated here by an asterisk) involve the interchange between the small form of the letters Е/Ә/Ө (е/ә/ө), e.g. *деріхана > дәріхана 'pharmacy', *бетен > бөтен, or the interchange between Ии and Ыы, e.g. *қоржыю > қоржию or *қоржимын > қоржымын.

As for the interchange between Ии and Ыы, it should be remembered that Ии is regularly used before Юю in the citation form of verbs (i.e. ию rather than *иу). However, in their conjugated forms (with tense and personal affixes), Ыы or Іі is added after a verb root ending in a consonant. The difference between *қоржыю and *қоржимын is that the former error is made by native Qazaq, but the latter by foreign learners of Qazaq.

A second type of error involves omission of the glide Йй, e.g. *күіктену > күйіктену 'to whelp'. A third type of error, which has more to do with poor quality newsprint than with actual misspelling, is the absence of the hyphen in Ұұ or the tail in Ңң and Ққ. As the student comes to understand vowel harmony and (consonantal) velar harmony, it will become easy to recognize this third kind of misprint. However, some rules of thumb are instructive. For example, the combination НД (nd) is less frequent than ҢД (ngd), and ҢД but not НД will vary with ҚТ or КТ, e.g. *жалбаландау > жалбалаңдау 'to flatter'. Also Ұұ, but not Үү, will be preceded or followed by the velar consonants Ққ, or Ғғ or back vowels а/ы/о. For example, *күйрық > кұйрық 'tail', *мұйіа > мүйіа 'antler'.

1.5 Homographs

Where as English has homophones (words sounding the same, but spelled differently), Qazaq has a number of homographs (words of different meaning, spelled the same). If one includes verb roots, there is even more overlap than with nouns alone. Except for the verb stems, most dictionaries will list each homograph separately. Here are some of the most common ones, with the graphemes written once followed by the meaning of each homograph (BB & K 1962:242).
Graphemes Homograph 1 Homograph 2 Homograph 3
бас head press!
бөле two sisters' kids swaddle!
қас eyebrow shore
қасы their enemy comb!
ақ white flow!
ат name, noun horseshoot!
ас meal hang!
аш open hungry
үй house pile it!
қара black look!
қой sheep put/stop it!
қу clever catch up!
шаш hair scatter it!
көр tomb see!
қал birthmark stay!
жара wound be useful!
жар ravine cleave it!
жүз face hundred
шақ tense, time smash it!
тақ throne sew!
сал gentleman put!
өр slope braid!
шал old person stumble!
там cemetery drip!
той banquet eat up!
от grass fire

II. Phonetic/Phonology

2.1 Vowel System

There are three types of Qazaq vowel graphemes, which may be classified as front or back round, front or back unrounded, middle or neutral, e.g.
Qazaq Vowels
roundedө үо ұ
unroundedе іа ы я
In addition, there are the glides и [iy], ю [yu] й [y] and у [w]. Examples which show that и, ю and у are not subject to the same vowel harmony rules as other vowel graphemes are: ителгі 'gerfalcon', иін/июқ 'shoulder', күлу 'laughter', сұғу 'to pass through', тігу 'sewing', тыю 'to forbid'.

In Qazaq orthography, the glides й and у are also treated as consonants. This is an important concept for understanding spelling and affixation rules. In particular, an affix beginning with a consonant cannot be attached directly to a root ending in й, у or ю, but requires that the affix be preceded by a vowel ы/і (for noun and verb roots).

In English and Russian loan-words the graphemes э and ю obey special vowel harmony rules. Though э generally behaves like Qazaq е, Qazaq words ending in ю (a substitute for *ийу) add affixes according to the vowel in the preceding syllable of a word.

Compare the consonant and vowel combinations in the following words in terms of their vowel harmony: күміс 'silver' vs. қымыс 'qumiss', көңіл 'heart' versus қоныр 'chestnut-colored'.

Hereafter, all noun or verb roots which contain the vowels а, ы, я, о, ұ are referred to as "velar", but those containing the vowels ө, ү, і, е are "non-velar". This label will be important to distinguish allomorphs of one basic inflectional or derivational affix.

2.2 Diphthongs

Qazaq orthography has diphthongs which can either be written with two graphemes, as they are pronounced, or with three graphemes. In the case of three graphemes, the second is always й or у, and the third ы or і depending on vowel harmony rules and various other factors. For example, in ауыр 'illness' and ауыз 'mouth', ы is needed to separate the consonantal grapheme у from the following consonant, and in order for the stress to be final rather than initial. In құйрық 'tail', only two graphemes ұй are needed for the diphthong, rather than *ұйы because stress does not fall on the syllable containing the diphthong.

If a verb root ends in Йй, the reflexive ын/ін and passive ыл/іл are added, rather than н and л, in the derived forms. For the learner the concept using three graphemes to represent what sounds like a diphthong in spoken Qazaq is more understandable if one keeps in mind that the stem already contains a diphthong written with two graphemes, and that Qazaq orthography treats Йй as a consonant.

2.3 Consonant System

An understanding of the phonological processes of devoicing and voicing in Qazaq will be facilitated by the ability to group together consonants into voiced/voiceless pairs. The Qazaq consonant graphemes below may be grouped into those that only devoice (italics) and those that voice or devoice (bold-face).
Qazaq Consonant System
voicedб д г ғ в ж з
voicelessп т к қ ф ш с щ х һ
sonorantsм н ң л р
Whereas vowel harmony applies to the assimilation of front or rounded (labial) qualities, the consonants г/к and ғ/қ, х are front and back velar voiced/voiceless pairs. Strictly speaking, front vowels combine only with front non-velar consonants, and back vowels combine only with back velar consonants in native Qazaq words and nativized loan-words. Russian loans and some Persian loan-words are the exception. The variation between қ and х in some words, e.g. қана/хана 'house' indicates that they should both be regarded as back velar consonants.

Some compounds which do not seem to follow vowel harmony rules are оқтізер 'machine gun', сыпайыгершілік 'politeness'. Persian loans which do not follow vowel harmony rules include қабір 'tomb' and қалір 'honor', but қайғы not *қайгі.

2.4 Word Stress/Fleeting Vowels

With the possible exception of some Russian and English loan-words, stress or accent falls on the final syllable. If a word takes an affix, the stress will shift to that new syllable. In the case of nouns, the shift in accent, which occurs with inflectional as well as derivational affixes, certain words of the native Qazaq vocabulary will drop a vowel from the syllable which receives the affix. This phenomenon is called the "fleeting vowel". Words ending in a sonorant or the fricative з exhibit the phenomenon most commonly, e.g. ауыз 'mouth' > аузы 'her mouth', ұйық 'sleep' > ұйқымла 'in my sleep'.

2.5 Phonological Changes

2.5.1 Types of Assimilation in Colloquial Speech

In spoken Qazaq, there are a number of phonetic assimilatory changes which are not reflected in the orthography. The examples of assimilatory changes (indicated by the arrow ">") given below are in standard Qazaq orthography only as a pronunciation guide for the learner. In writing only the unassimilated form is used.1 The five types of assimilation in colloquial speech are: 1.) labial harmony, 2.) consonantal voicing, 3.) consonantal devoicing, 4.) nasal assimilation, 5.) assibilation/gemination. Underneath each type are listed the phonetic environments which cause the changes.
1The same changes in Qyrghyz, however, are written as spoken.

2.5.2 Dissimilation of Лл in Standard Non-Colloquial Speech

The sonorant Лл always dissimilates to Дд when an affix beginning in Лл is attached to a root ending in this same consonant. Persian loan-words such as келде 'head' (< *келле) and молда 'mullah' (< *молла) show that the combination *лл is generally not allowed in Qazaq. Therefore, the adjectival affix *ЛЫ and the nominal affix *ЛЫҚ will dissimilate to ды/ді and дық/діқ after a root word ending in Лл. Similarly, the plural affix *ЛАР dissimilates to дар/дер. For example, кесел 'illness' + *ЛЫ > кеселді 'ill', жыл 'year' > бесжылдық 'five-year period', құрал 'instrument' > құралдар 'instruments'.

2.5.3 Consonantal Assimilation Changes in Noun/Verb Affixes

In order to understand consonantal assimilation in Qazaq, one must be able to group together those consonants which behave alike. In addition, to the voiced and voiceless division listed above, we can further divide the consonants coming at the end of a noun or verb roots into sonorant (м, н/л, р, ң) and non-sonorant (everything else) as follows. If an affix has a canonical or basic form in л or н, the initial consonant of the affix will assimilate to д or т depending on whether the root ends in a voiced or voiceless consonant. Affixes beginning with м will likewise assimilate to either б or п.
Classification of Consonants
I.Non-sonorant Consonants
voicelessн т к қ ф ш с

voicedб д г ғ у ж з
II.Sonorant Consonants
м н/л         р
The changes may be generalized by drawing a line vertically from the bottom (Sonorants) to the top (Non-sonorants) of the table for affixes beginning with *М or *Н/*Л. Remember that assimilation is explained by the formula C1 + C2 > C1C1 in which the second consonant (C2) gains some of the qualities of the first consonant (C1). For example, оттау 'to graze' and аңдау 'to perceive' are assimilated forms of от 'grass' + лау (verbalizer) and аң 'conscience' + лау.

The adjectival affix *ЛЫ remains unchanged after roots ending in a vowel, e.g. құрама 'combination' > құрамалы 'combined'. Following the direction of assimilation according to the table құрметті 'respected' is the devoiced assimilated form from құрмет 'respect' + лі < *ЛЫ, whereas онлық 'about ten' is the voiced assimilated form from он 'ten' + лық < *ЛЫҚ. Consonantal Voicing and Devoicing in Nouns/Verbs
Just as there is consonantal voicing and devoicing in colloquial speech, which is not reflected in writing, there is consonantal voicing and devoicing in non-colloquial speech which must be written as it is pronounced. The table of voiced and voiceless consonants also applies to these two assimilatory changes. In general, all final voiceless consonants of a word will voice when an affix beginning with a vowel is attached, e.g. мектеп 'school' > мектебіміз 'our school', құлак 'ear' > құлағым 'my ear'. Also, there are some compound words which reflect consonantal voicing, e.g. жарғанат 'bat' < қанат 'wing', қарашағаз 'type of wild goose' < қаз 'goose', қөгіршін 'dove' < көк 'blue'.

Devoicing involves the change of a voiced consonant to its voiceless counterpart when it comes in contact with an affix beginning with a voiceless consonant, e.g. жагу 'to burn' > жақтыру 'to cause to burn', қасқалдақ Fulcia atra (Eurasian coot) < қаз 'goose' + қалдақ.

Whether it is the final consonant of the root or word or whether it is the initial consonant of the affix which devoices will depend on: 1.) the canonical form of the affix and 2.) the type of final consonant on the root or word. For example, мектеп 'school' + *ЛАР > мектептер 'schools'; қанат 'wing' + *МЕН > қанатпен 'with a wing', but қанаттер 'wings' > қанаттербен 'with wings'; құлақ 'ear' + *ЛА > құлақта 'in the ear', but құлағымда 'in my ear'.

2.5.4 Homophonous Suffixes

As a result of the dissimilation of the adjectival *ЛЫ to ды/ді or ты/ті on the one hand, and the assimilation of accusative *НЫ to ды/ді or ты/ті on the other, confusion can arise in reading. Only context can allow the reader to determine whether ды/ді or ты/ті belongs to an adjectival or an accusative nominal, e.g. құрметті адам 'a respected person' versus көрсеткен құрметті жақсы көрді 'She liked the respect shown to her'. It should be noted further that the adjectival and accusative nominal ды/ді or ты/ті are homophonous with the tense marker *ДЫ for verbs.

Another common homophonous pair is *МА (deverbal nominalizing affix) and (negative verbal affix, "not/don't"). Both of these have the voiced assimilated variants ба/бе and voiceless variants па/пе (see affix list for examples).

III. Parts of Speech

3.1 Nouns

Qazaq nouns take nominal affixes. Usually, it is the derived nouns ending in *ЛЫҚ, *МА, or *С which can be distinguished morphologically from adjectives, adverbs, and verbs. Syntactically (i.e. as they function in a sentence), nouns can serve as adjectives, e.g. ми 'brain' > ми қабық 'cerebral cortex'. Such noun/adjective pairs as brain/cerebral or cat/feline are a more typical feature of English morphology than of Qazaq. Thus even though Qazaq has a nativized метафизикалық 'metaphysical' in addition to the Russian loans метафизик 'metaphysical' and метафизика 'metaphysics', Qazaq syntax allows the noun form to act as an adjective through the "ezafe construction", e.g. метафизика магынасы 'metaphysical sense', alongside метафизик мағына and метафизикалық мағына. The same is true of Persian loan-words, e.g. мәдениет 'culture' > nativized мәденитті 'cultural'/Persian мәдени 'cultural' > мәдениет институті - мәдени институт 'cultural institute'.

3.1.1 Inflection of Nouns

The canonical forms nominal inflectional affixes are ( none for nominative [атау]), *НЫҢ genitive ( ), *ҒА dative (барыс), *НЫ accusative, *НАН ablative (шығыс), *ДА locative ( ), *МЕН(ЕН) instrumental (көмектес). They behave according to the consonantal assimilation rules above and, with the exception of *МЕН(ЕН), have front/back vowel harmony variants as і/ы and е/а.
Canonical and Assimilated Inflectional Affixes
*НЫҢ genitiveны/ніды/діты/ті
*НЫ accusativeның/ніңдың/діңтың/тің
*НАН ablative (шығыс)нан/нендан/дентан/тен
*ДА locativeда/дета/те
*МЕН instrumental (көмектес)менбенпен
*ҒА dative (барыс)ға/геқа/ке

3.2 Postpositions

As the name suggests, Qazaq postpositions are placed after the noun, whereas English prepositions are before the noun. The four kinds of postpositions are classified according to the case ending of the noun which they govern: nominative (i.e. no case ending), dative, ablative, instrumental.
  1. nominative (атау): арқылы, туралы, жайында, жайлы, жөнінде, сияқты, секілді, бойы, бойда, бойымен, сайын, үшін, ғұрлы, шамалы, шақты, қаралы
  2. genitive: ішінен 'from inside', астынан 'from above, over', жанынан 'beside', үстінен 'from on top'
  3. dative (барыс): дейін/шейін 'as far as, up to', төмен 'below', қарай 'towards, in the direction of', қаран, қарсы, салым, тарта/жуық 'around', таяу
  4. ablative (шығыс): бері, кейін 'after', сон 'after', бұрын, бетер, гөрі 'than', өрі, басқа 'besides, except', бөлек, өзге
  5. instrumental (қөмектес): қатар, бірге, қабат, қоса
NB: ілгері 'in front, before', жоғары 'on top'

3.3 Numerals

Numerals are divided into cardinal (counting), ordinal (ranking), collective (grouping), and approximative.

3.4 Adverbs (Устеу)

Qazaq grammars classify adverbs into eleven types: 1.) underived (негізгі), 2.) derived (туынлы), 3.) simple (дара), 4.) complex (күрделі), 5.) temporal (мезгіл), 6.) locational (мекен), 7.) quantitative (мөлшер), 8.) manner (күшейту; сын-бейне), 9.) (мақсат), 10.) consequential (себеп-салдар), 11.) distributive (топтау). The first four types are morphological, whereas the others are semantic. Naturally, the two classification schemes have some overlap.
  1. Morphological
    1. underived (негізгі): әрец, азар, әрі, бері, дел, сәл.
    2. derived (туынды): ескіше, күздей, мұнша, жаяулап, тысқары, астыртын.
    3. simple (дара): ерте, кеш, тым, ерекше, басқаша, қыстай, кешке
    4. complex (күрделі): биыл, бүгін, бірталай, біраз, бірте-бірте, аөда-санда, жазы-қысы, алды-ала, құлан таза, күві кеше.
  2. Semantic
    1. temporal (мезгіл): кеше, бүгін, ертең, қазір, кешке, ертемен, ертесіне, таңертең, түнеугүні, бүрсігүні, жаздыгүні, биыл 'this year', быттыр, анда-санда, оқта-текте, күні-гүні.
    2. locational (мекен): әрі, бәрі, жоғары, төмен, алға, артқа, ішке, іште, ішкері, ілгері, мұнда, сонда.
    3. quantitative (мөлшер): сонша, онша, соншалық, оншалық, мұнша, мұншалық, сондайлық, біраз, бірталай, недәуір, веғұрлым, бірен-саран, азды-көпті.
    4. manner (күшейту: сын-бейне): әрең, әзер, дереу, желел, шапшаң, тез, жылдам, кенет, құр, түгел, ауызша, өзгеше, осылай, көйлекшең, тікелей, бірге, зорға, аздап, аса, нагыз, ең, өте, тым, тінті, айрықша, барынша, кілуң, небір, өңкей, әбден.
    5. goal (мақсат): әдейі, жорта, қасақана, көре, біле, тұра, әдейілеп.
    6. consequential (себеп-салдар): бекерге, амалсыздан, босқа, текке, лажсыздан, шарасыздан, амалсыздан, құр босқа, әншейін.
    7. distributive (топтау): екеулеп, үшеулеп, бірбірлеп, он-ондан, аз-аздан, көп-көптен, бас-басына, жұп-жұбымен, рет-ретімен.

3.5 Pronouns

Qazaq grammar includes seven classes of pronouns: personal, indicative, interrogative, reflexive, indefinite, definite, negative.

3.6 Verbs Етіс

Verbs are either basic or derived. Basic verbs have roots which end in either a consonant or a vowel. The verb 'to be' has special forms: емес 'is/are not' or 'will not be', еді 'was/were', but no separate form 'is/are'. There are also suppositional verbs екен 'to seem' and ғой id. which do not take personal endings, but follow conjugated main verbs. The verb 'to become' has the forms болу 'to become', болар 'will become', and болмау 'to not become'. There are also the verbs бар 'to exist/have' and жоқ 'to not exist/not have'. These are special because they do not take personal endings. Examples of the usage of some of these basic verbs are cited below from Cirtautus (1974:158): Оқыса адам болар дегевдік еді 'If she goes to school she might become a valuable person, so we had hoped indeed' (lit.: said).

Менде шаруаң бар ма? 'Is there work for me?' Бар еді, өте тығыз 'Yes, there was, it is very urgent'. Notice that the English 'it is very urgent' corresponds to Qazaq өте тығыз. In Qazaq 'is' is unnecessary because this is an equative sentence, шаруа 'work' = өте тығыз.

3.6.1 The Citation Form of Verbs

Whereas English dictionaries precede verbs with 'to...' as the infinitive or citation form, the citation form of the verb in Qazaq is a deverbal noun ending in Уу or Юю, e.g. оқ-у 'to read' < оқы, ойна-у 'to play, dance', жаз-у 'to write', бер-у 'to give', де-у 'to say'. However, the Qazaq citation form is typically glossed by the English infinitive. For example сарғаю 'to be weary' is a conventional means of showing that there is a conjugatable verb stem *сарға-. In fact, because this is an intransitive verb, its meaning corresponds more closely to the English adjective 'weary' than to the noun 'weariness'. The citation form of transitive verbs frequently corresponds to both nouns and adjectives in English, e.g. оқу жылы 'school year' < оқу 'reading: to read'.

3.6.2 Non-past Personal Endings

Non-past verb roots regularly take the following personal endings. Personal endings may also be preceded by tense markers (participles):
A separate set of personal endings are attached to verbs in the simple past tense (see below). Verb roots ending in a consonant will insert a vowel in between the root and the personal ending. Verb roots ending in a vowel will insert й before the personal ending. Examples: сөйлейсіз 'you speak', оқыймыз 'we read', аласыз 'you take', оқыйды 'she reads', ойнайдыдар 'they dance'.

Verb stems ending in Р do not add a vowel in the first person singular, e.g. бармын 'I go', тұрмын 'I stand'. Also, no affix is added for the third person singular/plural. This means that the third person singular present indicative is homophonous with the second person singular imperative, e.g. тұр 'stand!; (s)he stands/they stand', жүр 'go!; (s)he goes/they go', жатыр 'lie down!; (s)he lies down/they lie down'. In the case of participles, personal endings are added directly to participials, e.g. келерсің 'you will go', күтнеснекпіз 'we do not intend to wait'.

3.6.3 Negative Forms of Simple Verbs

The negative affix *МАС 'not', which is attached directly to the verb stem, and which precedes the personal endings, has front/back and voiced/voiceless allomorphs as follows: -мес/мас (after a non-nasal, voiced consonant, р, л, й, у), -бес/бас (after a nasal м, н, ң), -пес/пас (after a voiceless consonant). Examples, бармаспын 'I do not go', келмеспіз 'we do not come', күтпеспін 'I do not expect', жазбассыз 'you (pl.) do not write', айтнасыздар 'you (pl.) do not say', келмес 'she does not come'.

There are negative complex tenses which in the pluperfect can interchange емес and жоқ. For example, алған емес еді 'she has not taken' = алған жоқ еді (BB & K 1962:345).

3.6.4 Derived Verbs and Verb Derivation

These include reflexive (acting by oneself or upon oneself), passive (receipt of action done by someone or something else), collective (action as a group or in pairs), and causative (causing/allowing someone to do something).
Verb roots ending in a consonant take ін/ын (reflexive), іл/ыл (passive), but verb roots ending in a vowel take -н (reflexive), -л (passive), e.g. тарану 'to comb one's own hair', таралу 'to be combed', көріну 'to appear', сазыну 'to be put'.

You will notice that көріну 'to appear' and сазыну 'to be put' are semantically reflexive/intransitive and passive respectively. In Qazaq, not all verbs have both a passive and reflexive form. In fact, this is not a rigid classification because there is frequently so much interchange between the usage of reflexive and passive suffixes. By definition, if a verb does not govern the direct object *НЫ, it is intransitive. For example, the verb қорқу 'to be afraid' is intransitive/reflexive because it takes the ablative, as in неден қорқасың? 'What are you afraid of?'

verbs generally refer to group action, e.g. ойнасу 'to play together', сөйлесу 'to converse'. However, there is also some overlap in usage with reflexive verbs. Like reflexive verbs, collective verbs do not necessarily take an accusative object, since the object 'each other' is implied in the collective suffix.
affixes include back and front voiceless/voiced pairs, e.g. -қыз/ғыз, -кіз/гіз, -тыр/дыр, -тір/дір, (also т, e.g. жүгірт-у < жүгір-у). They serve two functions: 1.) with simple verbs, to give the meaning of 'to cause/make/have (someone) to do (something)', e.g. жу-ғыз-у 'to have washed/to have someone wash' < жу-у, 2.) to transitivize a verb which is intransitive in its basic form or whose basic form ends in a reflexive suffix, e.g. кел-тір-у 'to bring' < кел-у 'to come', айлан-дыр-у 'to change' < айлан-у 'to change (by itself)'. In some contexts, the causative affix has the meaning of 'to force or compel to do', e.g. шыпын айтқызу 'to force to tell the truth'.

3.6.5 Participles Есімше

Participles modify nouns. But in their English translation, they can be thought of as serving two syntactic functions: 1.) to relativize a noun, e.g. 'who is/does' or 'that which is/dows', 2.) adjectivally to modify a noun. Context, frequency of usage, and English stylistics will dictate whether an English adjective can be more easily substituted for a relative clause. Qazaq participles may be classified into four types: aorist (өтуен шақ), future (келер шақ), habitual (дағдылы), and goal-oriented (мақсат). As with other affixes, these have voicing and front/back vowel harmonizing variants.
Aorist (өткен шақ):
қан/ған and -кен/ген. When relativizing a noun, the noun can be either a subject or an object, depending upon context, e.g. Айтқаныңыз есімде бар 'I remember what you said'. These take the non-present personal endings listed below. In this conjugated form they correspond to the 'past perfect tense' in English or French, e.g. айтканмын 'I have said', кеткевміз 'we have left', барғакыңдар 'you all have gone', келгенбіз 'we have come'. Some examples of the aorist participle which translates more easily asn an adjective than a relative clause in English are қайнаған су 'boiling/boiled water' < қайнау 'to boil', саудыраган шөл 'scrawny old man' < саудырау, сасыған ет 'putrid meat' < сасу 'to stink'.

When combined with болу 'to become', these aorist participles have the meaning of 'to pretend, give the appearance, to feign'. For example, ұйықтан жатқап болу 'to pretend to be asleep', өлген болу 'to play dead', танымвған болу 'to pretend not to recognize (someone)' (BB & K 1962:287).

Future (келер шақ):
-р (after a root ending in a vowel), -ар (after a velar root ending in a consonant), -ер (after a non-velar root ending in a consonant). The negative forms are -мас/мес. Both futurity and indefiniteness are included in the meaning of these participles. The future particles can also take personal endings.

When combined with еді, -р has the meaning of 'would have', e.g. Мен оны көрсем, бірден таныр едім 'If I had seen her, I would have recognized her at once' (BB & K 1962:349).

In the negative form, e.g. Батыр мұндай бәлеге ұшырамса, ьіз де Әбіштің зорлығын көрмес едік 'If Batyr had not encountered such misfortune, we too would not have been offended by Ebish (BB & K 1962:349).

Habitual (дағдылы):
-атын, йтын/етін, йтін. These refer to continuous or repetitive (i.e. iterative) action. They carry the meaning of 'usually/always/frequently' or 'in the process of'. Non-present personal endings may be added directly to the habitual affix. Examples, баратынмып, келетінсін, сөйлейтін. The habitual meaning need not be included in the English translation, e.g. аң алайтын құс 'hunting bird' (i.e. bird which is for hunting), ұйыктайтын ьөлме 'sleeping section', кір жуатын машина 'washing machine', кір жуатын әйел 'laundress', кір жуатын үй 'laundry room' < кір жуу 'to do laundry'. When relativizing a noun, 'for, to' must be added to the translation, e.g. таңырқанатын ештеңесі жоқ '(there's) nothing to be surprised about' < таңырқану 'to be surprised'.

Combined with болу 'to become', there is a futuritive meaning, e.g. мен үйленетін болдым 'I will get married'.

The negative forms are -майтын/мейтін, e.g. Он жыл бұрын Дүйсен хат танымайтын еді. 'Ten years ago Duisen was illiterate (couldn't read)'; Дәл осы незде Асқар келсе, Сабит қатты қиналмайтын еді 'If Asqar had come at that time, Sabit would not have been suffering (BB & K 1962:347).

-шы/ші. This group tends to refer to professions as well as habitual actions, e.g. оқушы 'student' (i.e. one who studies as a profession < оқу 'to read, study').

Goal-oriented (мақсат):
-мақ, бақ, нақ/меқ, беу, пек. These carry the meaning of 'intend, plan to...', and are added directly to the verb stems, followed by the personal endings. Examples, бармақпын 'I intend to go', келмексін 'you intend to come', жазбақ 'she intends to write', күтпекпіз 'we plan on waiting', айтпақсыздар 'you plan (pl.) on saying', міцбексің 'you (sg.) intend to ride'. The negative is formed with емес plus a conjugated form of еді, e.g. жазбақшы емес едім 'I did not intend to write' (BB & K 1962:347).

3.6.6 Deverbal Adverbs (Көсемше)

Deverbal adverb refers to an adverb derived from a verb. Qazaq grammarians recognize five types of verbal adverbs: aorist (өткен шақ), future (келер шақ), transitional (ауыспалы шақ), goal-oriented (мақсат), temporal (мезгіл), conditional (шарт).
Aorist (өткен шақ):
-п (after a root ending in a vowel), -ып (after a velar root ending in a consonant), -іп (after a non-velar root ending in a consonant). The aorist -П can be used in four ways: 1.) adverbially, 2.) to indicate sequences of actions, 3.) in compound constructions (see 3.6.8 below), 4.) reported action, when used with non-present personal endings.

Adverbial usage can be seen in English 'admittedly', 'hopefully', 'understandably', 'interestingly', which are the same as 'I admit that', 'I hope that', 'I understand that', 'it is interesting that'. In Qazaq we find, Жоқ, нима еді? деді у қызықсынып 'No, what was it, she asked excitedly' (Cirtautus 1974:158).

Sequence of actions is exemplified by, Күлей аысақ алын Райханға тап береді. 'Kulej took a knife and threatened Rajxan' (Cirtautus 1974:152).

Non-present personal endings may be added directly to the aorist affix to give the meaning of repeated action which the speaker has not actually witnessed. However, in the English translation, 'heard that...' is not normally included. Examples, оқыпсыз 'you (pl.) read', іздеппін 'I search', барыпмыв 'I go', келіпті 'she comes', may all be preceded by 'I heard that...'.

Another example is from (Cirtautus 1974:156): Бізге бір дабыл келін түсті, сіздің колхоздағы клуб құрылысы тоқтан қалыпты ғой рас па? 'We heard the rumor (that) the construction of the club (house) at your kolxoz has been stopped, is that true?' The phrase бір дабыл келін түсті '(we) heard a rumor' requires use of the aorist -п in the auxiliary part of a compound verb (see 3.6.8 below), тоқтап қалыпты 'has been stopped'.

Negative Aorist:
*МАСТАН, allomorphs -мастан/местен, пастан/пестен; *МАЙ, allomorphs -май/мей, пай/пей. The negative aorist of 'to be' is емес. When used adverbially *МАСТАН can be translated as 'without having done/been...', but *МАЙ as 'without doing/being...'.

Transitional (ауыспалы шақ):
roots ending in a vowel take -й (e.g. ойнау 'to play, dance' > ойнай). Velar roots ending in a consonant take -а (e.g. бару 'to go' < бара), but non-velar roots take -е (e.g. келу 'to come' > келе), суырыла сөйлеу 'to speak frequently'.

Goal-oriented (мақсат):
-қалы/ғалы, -келі/гелі. These have the meaning 'in order to, for the purpose of'.

Temporal (мезгіл):
-қанша/ғанша, -кенше/генше. These carry the meaning of 'by the time' or 'until'.

Conditional (шарт):
-майынша, -мейінше.

3.6.7 Immediate Past Tense (жедел өткен шақ) of Simple Verbs

The immediate past tense marker *ТЫ is added to the verb stem, followed by a separate set of personal endings (as opposed to those for the present and future). The back/front and voiced/voiceless allomorhps of *ТЫ are: ты/ті, ды/ді. As mentioned earlier, the verb 'to be' has the form еді in the immediate past tense. Though in most grammars it refers to "an only once-occuring, completed action in the past", in actual usage it refers to "present and future actions" as well (Cirtautus 1974:151). For example, Ал, енді қаттік? And what shall we do (= did we) now?" АЙ, мен үйленетмн болдым 'Ha, I will get married (= was married)' [Cirtautus 1974:152-3].

Immediate Past Tense Personal Endings

Examples, айттық 'we said', келдім 'I came', кеттіңіздер 'you (pl.) left', жаздың 'you (sg.) wrote'.

3.6.8 Compound Verbs

These are formed from an adjectival in -п or -й/а/е (i.e. a main verb plus the aorist adverbial ending) plus one of several auxiliary verbs which take the personal endings, e.g. отыру, тұру, жату, жүру. Some examples of compound verbs, whose combinations between main verb and auxiliary are not predictable, include: сөйлеп отыру, келіп тұру, жазып жату, оқып жүру, бара жатыр. When a verb ending in -п or -й/а/е modifies another verb (adverbially), but is not as part of a compound, context will have to be used for the learner to recognize the difference.

A typical example involving compounding is from Cirtautus (1974:156): Бізге бір дабыл келіп түсті, сіздің колхоздағы клуб құрылысы тоқтап қадыпты ғой рас па? 'We just heard the rumor (that) the construction of the club (house) at your kolxoz has been stopped, is that true?' We see that main verbs with the adverbial -п followed by auxiliaries түсу 'to fall' and қалу 'to remain'. The auxiliary түсу 'to fall' implies a recently completed action, but қалу 'to remain' emphasizes both sudden and unexpected action.

Compounding with negative main verbs requires the affix *МАЙ. For example, Ата танымай тұрсыз? Мен Жақиямын ғой 'Father, don't you recognize me? I am Zhaqija!' (Cirtautus 1974:157). Here тұру 'to stand' carries the meaning of continuous or uncompleted action.

Some examples which are not compound constructions are as follows: күте-күте сарғаю 'weary of waiting (and waiting)', теңселе басу 'to stomp', тікелен қарау 'to look steadily', тесе қарай қалу 'to look with a piercing glance', атқа ырғын міну 'to mount a horse by jumping (on it)', қабағы тыржыя қалу 'to be in a rage', күн туын келе жатыр 'the sun is beginning to rise', сығалап ату 'to take aim and shoot'.

Auxiliary Verbs
Auxiliary verbs involve a semantic usage other than the basic dictionary meaning when combined syntactically with a main verb. The two types of usages for auxiliary verbs are modal/inchoative or as a marker of aspect/tense/person with compound verbs.

  1. modal/inchoative usage
    Auxiliaries can be used in modal or inchoative meanings when combined with a main verb ending in а/е/й (i.e. transitional deverbal adverb [ауыспалы шақ]). Auxiliaries include болу 'to become', беру 'to give', тұру 'to stand', түсу 'to fall', көру 'to see', жаздау 'to fail, miss'. For example, сала берді 'she keeps putting', сөйлей беру 'to keep speaking', отыра тұр 'sit awhile', отыра түс 'remain seated', кешіре көр 'please excuse me', айта көр 'please say', өле жаздады 'he almost died', айта жаздадым 'I almost said', жығыла жаздадың 'you nearly fell'.
  2. aspect/tense/person markers
    It is the auxiliary verb which takes the tense affixes (e.g. *ТЫ, *Р) and the personal affixes. Auxiliary verbs used in compounding are divided into two classes, according to the Slavic grammatical model applied to Qazaq in Balaqaev, Baskakov, and Kengesbaev (BB & K 1962:276), into perfective (шығу 'to exit' қою 'to put', тастау 'to throw', жіберу 'to send', қалу 'to remain', кету 'to leave', келу 'to come') and imperfective action (отыру 'to sit', жату 'to lie', жүру 'to go around', тұру 'to stand'). The following examples are compound verbs with the auxiliaries divided into the aspectual classes, imperfective and perfective. The accompanying English glosses are intended as a guide to understand the nuances of these verbs, not as a literal translation.
Simple VerbImperfective formPerfective form
оқу 'to read'оқып отыру 'to read'оқып шығу 'to read completely'
жеу 'to eat'жеп отыру 'to be eating'жеп қою 'to finish eating'
шіру 'to rot'шіріп жату 'to be rotting'шіріп кету 'to be all rotten'
ату 'to shoot'атып жату 'to shoot repeatedly'атып тастау 'to shoot through'
атып жіберу 'to shoot through'
жану 'to burn'жанып жату 'to be on fire'жанып кету 'to burn up'
өлу 'to die'өліп бара жату 'to be dying'өліп қалу 'to up and die'
ұшу 'to fly'ұшып жүру 'to fly around'ұшып кету 'to fly off'

3.6.9 Reduplication

Reduplication is a feature of Qazaq in which a verb or adverb is duplicated, the meaning being rather idiomatic. For example, бір-бірлеп 'one by one', бес-бестеп 'in fives', бара-бара (идя-идя), тілер-тілемес 'willy-nilly', күле-күле (смеясь-смеясь), болар-болмас 'slightly, insignificantly'.

3.6.10 Imperative Mood

The first person (sg., pl.) and third person (sg., pl.) 'let me/us...' and command/imperative form of the second person (sg., pl.) have the following affixes. You will notice that the second person singular imperative corresponds to the simple verb stem, while in the plural it adds -(ы)ңыз/(і)ңіз.

Table of Imperative Personal Endings

Examples, ойнайық 'let's dance', барайын 'let me go', оқысын 'let her read', келіңдер 'come (you pl.)', бар 'go (you sg.)'.

3.6.11 Optative Mood

The optative mood expresses wish or desire, marked by the affix *ҒЫ with the following allomorphs: ғы/гі, қы/кі. They are conjugated with the possessive pronominal endings -м 'my', -ң 'your (sg.)', -ңыз/ңіз 'your (pl.)', сы/сі 'his/her/its', лары/лері 'their', -мыз/міз 'we', ларың/лерің 'you (sg. honorific)', ларыңыз/леріңіз 'you (pl. honorific)'. Examples, келгім 'I want to come', сөйлегің 'you want to say', айтқысы 'she wants to say', кеткіңіз 'you (pl.) want to leave'.

3.6.12 Conditional Mood

The morpheme *СА 'if' is attached to the verb root followed by the past personal endings above. It has the back/front allomorphs са/се. Examples, барсам 'if I go', келсең 'if you (sg.) come', сөйлесе 'if she speaks', айтсаңыздар 'if you (pl. honorific) say'. An example, which includes a future usage of the immediate past tense (Cirtautus 1974:153) is, Өлсем, бірге өлдім 'If I die, we shall die (- died) together'.

IV Conjunctions (жалғаулық, шылаулар)

The eight types of Qazaq conjunctions are: 1.) connecting (ыңғайластық), 2.) disjunctive (талгаулықты), 3.) contrastive (қарсылықты), 4.) motivating (себепті), 5.) consequential (салдарлық), 6.) conditional (шарттық), 7.) specifying (айқындағыш), 8.) adjoining (ұстастырғыш). These eight are broadly divided into coordinating conjunctions (салаластырғыш) and subordinating conjunctions (сабақтастырғыш).
  1. coordinating conjunction (салаластырғыш)
    1. connecting (ыңғайластық): мен(ен)/бен/пен 'with/even though/although', да/де/та/те 'and', және 'and/also', әрі, әм. Examples,
      Қар ерте кеткенмен, күн жылынбалы. 'Even though the snow melted early, the sun didn't shine.'
      Жаңбыр жауды да жер көктеді 'It rained and the earth turned green.'
      Ат та бар, үй да бар 'She has both a horse and a home.'
      Сәуле бүгін қалаға баратын ниеті жоқ еді және даяр көлік те брла қоймайды. 'Saule did not think about going to town today, and so she had no supplies.'
    2. disjunctive (талгаулықты): әлде, бірсе, я, бірдс, брлмаса, пе, пемесе, яки, құй, мейлі.
  2. subordinating conjunction (сабақтастырғыш)
    1. contrastive (қарсылықты): бірақ, алайда, әйтседе, әйткенмен, әйтпесе, әйткенде, дегемен, онда да, сондада, сөйтсе да.
    2. motivating (себепті): себебі, өйткепі веге десең, не үшіп десең.
    3. consequential (салдарлық): сондықтан, сол себепті, сол үшін, соның үшін.
    4. conditional (шарттық): егер, егер де, алда-жалда.
    5. specifying (айқындағыш): яғни, демек.
    6. adjoining (ұстастырғыш): ал ендеше, ендеше, олай болса, онда.

V Derivational Morphology

Adjectives derived from nouns, called denominal adjectives, and adjectives derived from verbs (deverbal adjectives), are the most common types.

5.1 Denominal Adjectives

-лы/ды/ты -лі/ді/ті, e.g. атақты, пайдалы, тасты

-лық/дық/тық -лік/дік/тік, e.g. қалалық, жылдық, қонамдық

-сыз/сіз, e.g. пайдасыз, білімсіз

-қы/ғы, -кі/гі, e.g. жазғы 'spring', кузгі 'autumnal', ішкі 'inner'

-шыл/шіл, e.g. турашыл, ұйқышыл, көпшіл

-дай/тай, -дей/тей, e.g. таудай, үйдей

-лас/дас/тас, -лес/дес/тес, e.g. пікірлес, қызметтес

-шаң/шең, e.g. көйлекшең, ашушаң

-и (in Persian loan-words only) әдеби 'literary', медени 'cultural', тарихи 'historical', әскери 'military'

-қой, e.g. кәсіпқой, сәнқой

-қор, e.g. жемқор, жалақор, ызақор

-лар/тар (can be confused with plural suffix), e.g. қарыздар 'indebted' < қарыз 'debt, loan'; хабардар 'informed' < хабар 'news'

5.2 Deverbal Adjectives

-қ/к, e.g. сынық, жабық, сирек, ісік

-қыш/ғыш, -кіш/гіш, e.g. сенгіш, тапқыш, тоңғыш

-қыр/гыр, -кір/гір, e.g. тапқыр, білгір

-қы/ғы, -кі/гі, e.g. жинақы, күлдіргі, бұрвлқы

-қақ/ғақ, e.g. жабысқақ, тоцғақ


VI Interjections

Qazaq grammars recognize three semantic types of interjections: emotional, stimulative, and common expressions.

Emotional: па, пелі (shame!), қан (too bad, what a pity), паһ-паһ, оһо, оһ, пай-пай, ту (yippee), әттең, әттеген-ай, тәйірі, түге, и-и, мәссаған, ойпыр-ай, беу, пішту.

Stimulative: тәйт (damn!), соп-соп, кәне, жә, теке, әрі, әлди-әлди, моһ-моһ, көс-көс (to a camel), әукім-әукім, шөре-шөре, пұшат-пұшат (to sheep), ауқау-ауқау (to a cow).

Common Expressions: ассалумфлуйкум, уағаликумуссәлам, хош, қайыр, рахмет, құп, ләббәй, жәрәкімәлла.

These three semantic types overlap slightly with two formal types of interjections: simple and complex.

Simple: оһ, ой, әй, ой, е, ә

Complex: бәрекелде, тәңір-ай, ассалумалейкум, мәссаган, япырмай, әттегеп-ай, ой аит атсын! (damn you!).

VII References

Базылхан, Б. 1977. Қазақ, Монгол Тілі Граммати асынан Қысқаша Салыстырмалы Белгілеулер. In: Қазақша-Монғолша Сөздік. Уланбатыр.

Балакаев, М.Б., Н.А. Баскаков, С.К. Кенесбаев ed. 1962. Соврумуный Казахский Язык. Фонеика и Морфология. Алма-ата.

Laude-Cirtautus, Ilse. 1974. The Past Tense in Kazakh and Usbek as a Means of Emphasizing Present and Future Actions. Central Asiatic Journal 18:149-158.

Махмудов, Х.Х. 1989. Краткий Очерк Грамматики Казахского Языка. In: Х. Махмудов, Ғ. Мусабаев. Қазақша-орысша Сөздік. Алматы.

Серғалиев, Мырзатай. 1992. Қазақ Тілі. Методикалық оқу құралы. Алматы.

Түймебаев, Жансеит Капсейтулы. 1991. Қазақ тілі. Қысқаша Грамматикалық анықтағыш. Алматы.

VIII List of Affixes

Provided here is a list of derivational and inflectional affixes. This list differs slightly from other grammars which list малы/мелі/балы/белі/палы/пелі and қылықты/кілікті as distinct affixes. Instead, these are listed together under the asterisked morphphoneme *ЛЫ; no asterisk means there are no allomorphs.

In taking the morphophonemic approach to Qazaq phonology and morphology, it was necessary to choose one of many allomorphs as the basic or canonical form from which the other allomorphs could be derived by applying any of the relevant rules of assimilation and vowel harmony. Thus it is more practical to designate *ЛЫ and *ЛЫҚ as canonical, whereas лы/лі, ды/ді, ты/ті and лық/лік, дық/дік, тық/тік are voiced/voiceless and back/front variants. The analysis here further assumes the primacy of fronting from ы > і and а > е rather than the reverse. Deciding when қ or ғ is primary in certain affixes is more problematic and arbitrary.

From the point of view of the learner, the morphophonemic approach allows the student to see more linguistic patterns more clearly. From the point of view of the linguist and teacher, it groups together more information for a more orderly and systematic presentation of the language. Also, I have opted for the term "affix" to mean either suffix or infix. The Persian prefix бей/би- is not included in this list because it is not productive and, in words where it occurs, it tends to be replaced by the postpositioned *СЫЗ.

The terms used below refer to the derivation of one morphological class from another. The prefix de- in the name means 'derived from' e.g. deverbal nominal affix "an affix to make nouns from verbs", denominal adjectival "to make adjectives from nouns", etc.

It is recommended that the student become familiar with these affixes in both the canonical and assimilated forms. Some like лт, *ТЫМ, and тал are unproductive and will likely be encountered in only the handful of example words cited below.

Denominal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs лы/ды/ты лі/ді/ті, e.g. атақты, пайдалы, тасты, далалы, никелді, отынды, гүлді, тасты, түсті, қызғылықты, игілікті, түпкілікті
Denominal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs лық/дық/тық лік/дік/тік, e.g. қададық, жылдық, қоғамдқ, балалық кішілік, күзлік, жастық, көштік
Denominal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs сыз/сіз, e.g. тамақсыз, киімсіз, пайдасыз, білімсіз
Deverbal .... Affix, allomorphs қалақ/келек, ғалақ/гелек, e.g. сасқалақ, тепкелек, жаңғалақ, күйгелек
(1) *ҚЫ
Denominal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs қы/ғы, -кі/гі, e.g. сытрқы 'outer', жазғы 'spring', күзгі 'autumnal', ішкі 'inner'
(2) *ҚЫ
Deverbal Adjectival Affix, allomorphs -қы/ғы, -кі/гі, e.g. жинақы, күлдіргі, бұралқы
(1) *ШЫЛ
Denominal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs шыл/шіл, e.g. турашыл, ұйқышыл, көпшіл, күлкішіл, көкшіл 'bluish', ақшыл 'whitish'
(2) *ШЫЛ
Deadjectival Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs шыл/шіл, e.g. көкшіл 'bluish', ақшыл 'whitish'
Denominal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs дай/тай, дей/тей, e.g. таудай, үйдей, тастай, сүттей
Denominal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs лас/дас/тас, лес/дес/тес, e.g. пікірлес, қызметтес, аттас, істес, замандас, көңілдес
Denominal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs шаң/шең, e.g. көйлекшең, ашушаң, кіршең
Denominal Adjectival Affixes (in Persian loan-words only), e.g. әлеби 'literary', мәдени 'cultural', тарихи 'historical', әскери 'military'
Denominal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs ы/і, e.g. толы, өлі
Denominal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs қой, e.g. кәсіпқой, сәнқой
Denominal .... Affix, e.g. қырқар, заңгар
Denominal Adjectival Affixes, e.g. жемқор, жалақор, ызақор
-дар/тар (can be confused with plural affix), e.g. қарыздар 'indebted' < қарыз 'debt, loan'; хабардар 'informed' < хабар 'news'
De........, allomorphs дақ/деқ, тақ/тек
Deverbal Nominal/Adjectival Affix, allomorphs -қ/к, e.g. сынық, жабық, сирек, ісік, арық, түрік
Deverbal Adjectival Affix, allomorphs -қыш/гыш, -кіш/гіш, e.g. сенгіш, танқыш, тоңғыш, тескіш, алдағыш, сүзгіш
Deverbal Adjectival Affix, allomorphs -қыр/ғыр, -кір/гір, e.g. танқыр, білгір, алғыр, ұшқыр, өткір
Deverbal Adjectival Affix, allomorphs -қақ/кек, ғақ/гек, e.g. жабысқақ, тоңғақ, тырысқақ, еңкек, сергек
Locative Adjectival Affix, allomorphs -дағы/дегі
(1) *С
Collective Derivational Verbal Affix, e.g. ойвасу 'to play together', сөйлесу 'to converse'
(2) *С
Deverbal Nominal Affix, e.g. жарыс, керіс, жалғас
Reflexive/Intransitive Derivational Verbal Affix, allomorphs н/ін/ын
Passive/Intransitive Derivational Verbal Affix, allomorphs л/іл/ыл
Causative Derivational Verbal Affix, allomorphs -қыз/ғыз, -кіз/гіз
Causative Derivational Verbal Affix, allomorphs -тыр/дыр, -тір/дір
Causative Derivational Verbal Affix, e.g. жүгірт-у < жүгір-у
Aorist Verbal Affix, allomorphs қан/ған and -кен/ген
Future Verbal Affix, allomorphs -р/-ар/-ер
Negative Future Verbal Affix, allomorphs -мас/мес
Negative Adverbal Affix, allomorphs -мастан/местен, настан/нестен
Negative Adverbal Affix, allomorphs -май/мей, най/ней
Deverbal Nominal Affix, allomorphs (ы)мсақ/(і)мсек, e.g. жарамсақ, тілемсек, өлімсек
.... қызғылт, сарғылт
Denominal Adjectival Affix, e.g. ұғымтал, өсімтал
қызғылтым, сарғылтым, ақшылтым, көкшілтім
Habitual Verbal Affix, allomorphs -атын, йтын/етін, йтін, e.g. баратынмын, келетінсін, сөйлейтән
(1) *ШЫ
Agent Verbal Affix, allomorphs шы/ші, e.g. оқушы 'student' (i.e. one who studies as a profession < оқу 'to read, study')
(2) *ШЫ
баршы (иди-ка), келші
барсайшы (иди-ка же)
allomorphs ңқыра/ңкіре, e.g. барыңқыра (иди ешё чуть-чуть), келіңкіре
Goal-oriented Verbal Affix, allomorphs -мақ, бақ, пақ/ мек, бек, пек, e.g. бармақнын 'I intend to go', келмексін 'you intend to come', жазбақ 'she intends to write', күтнекпіз 'we plan on waiting', айьвақсыздар 'you plan (pl.) on saying', мінбексің 'you (sg.) intend to ride'
Aorist Verbal Affix, allomorphs -н/ын/ін, e.g. оқынсыз 'you (pl.) read', ізлеппін 'I search', барыпмын 'I go', келіпті 'she comes'
(unproductive morpheme, found only in Persian loan-words) өлерназ, асназ
Transitional Participial Affix, e.g. ойнау 'to play, dance' > ойанай
Transitional Participial Affix, allomorphs -а/е, e.g. бару 'to go' > бара, келу 'to come' > келе
Goal-oriented Participial Affix, allomorphs -қалы/ғалы, -келі/гелі
Temporal Participial Affix, allomorphs -қанша/ғанша, -кенше/генше. These carry the meaning of 'by the time' or 'until'
Conditional Participial Affix, allomorphs -майынша, -мейінше
Past Tense Affix, allomorphs ты/ті, ды/ді
First Person Singular Imperative Affix, allomorphs (а)йын/(е)йін, e.g. барайын 'let me go'
Deverbal Nominal Affix, allomorphs ма/ме/ба/бе/па/пе, e.g. жасама, сырма, қызба, кезбе, түспе, керме, тұнба, төңбелі, аспа, серіппе
Deverbal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs (ы)мды/(і)мді, e.g. тартымды, келісімді, ұстамды
Deverbal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs (ы)нды/(і)нді, e.g. жасанды, шәйінді, жыртынды, үзінді
Denominal Adjectival Affixes, allomorphs (ы)ңқы/(і)ңқі, e.g. басыңқы, түсіңқі
First Person Imperative Affix, allomorphs (а)йық/(е)йік, e.g. ойайық 'let's dance'
Second Person Plural Imperative or Possessive Pronominal Affix, allomorphs (ы)ңыз/(і)ңіз
Honorific Second Person Plural Imperative or Possessive Pronominal Affix, allomorphs (ы)ңыздар/(і)ңіздер, e.g. келіңздер 'come (you pl.)', үйіңіздер 'your house'
First Person Singular Imperative or Possessive Pronominal Affix, allomorphs (ы)ңыз/(і)ң
Honorific First Person Singular Imperative or Possessive Pronominal Affix, allomorphs (ы)ңыздар/(і)ңдер, e.g. келіңдер 'come (you pl.)', үйіңдер 'your house'
Third Person Singular/Plural Imperative Affix, allomorphs сын/сін, e.g. оқысын 'let her read'
'want to' Optative Mood Affixes expresses wish or desire, marked by the Affix, allomorphs ғы/гі, қы/кі, e.g. келгім 'I want to come', сөйлегің 'you want to say', айтқысы 'she wants to say', кеткіңіз 'you (pl.) want to leave'
'if' Conditional Mood Affix, allomorphs са/се, e.g. барсам 'if I go', келсең 'if you (sg.) come', сөйлесе 'if she speaks', айтсаңыздар 'if you (pl. honorific) say'
Deverbal Nominal Affix, allomorphs у/ю, e.g. балау, кішілеу, босаңдау, үлкендеу, тастақьау, еңкіштеу
Comparative Adjectival Affix, allomorphs (ы)рақ/(і)рек, e.g. ұзынырақ, биігірек, аласарақ, кішірек